Beam-A thin, yet highly concentrated, type of technique, Beams lack pushing power, but are very damaging upon impact. Beams can either pierce (Special Beam Cannon) or explode (Eye Beam). Beams are quick and easy to use, but are easily overwhelmed by Waves. Beams also require a high level of accuracy (to simulate this, Beams are the slowest of the three types).
Examples-Death Beam, Special Beam Cannon, Eye Beam

Orbs-Contained bodies of ki that don't require interaction from the user once they are formed and unleashed. Orbs often rely on size and power to overwhelm an opponent. There are exceptions to both of these rules, such as Sou Ki Dan, which is near the size of a basketball and can be directionally controlled by the user after being thrown.
Examples-Big Bang, Death Ball, Sou Ki Dan

Wave-Waves are the powerhouse techniques. The user is required to stand in place as they channel enormous amounts of energy into the attack. Though waves are (nearly) always large in size and power, rarely are they fired at more than one target. Waves can easily overpower the unaware, or over confident, opponent.
Examples-Gallick Gun, Kamehameha, Bakuriki Demon Blast.

Other/Special Cases-Not every tecnique will fall into one of the above catergories. Tehcniques such as Kienzan, Instant Transmission, Energy Shytou, and many others will be defined on a case by case basis.

Technique Types
Some clarification on the types of ki used...